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Because of these reasons, the water quality is gradually deteriorating and damaging the ecosystem. This scenario also causes socioeconomic problems, due to devaluation of the area, which is polluted by fishing, tourism, leisure, and also raises public health concerns due to the proliferation of diseases GORAYEB et al. According to Article 18 of Law No. Article 33 of the same law determines how reverse logistics is to be carried out, i. Skin accounts for 4. Development of an artisanal tanning method of the acoupa weakfish Cynoscion acoupa skin and its transfer through a Hide of the acoupa weakfish with average dimensions of 60 cm length and 15 cm width and a mean weight of g, were obtained from a fish processing plant in the region and refrigerated at C.
For the experiment, the hides were defrosted at room temperature 25C.
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The methodology involved elaboration of the artisanal tanning method, leather resistance test, transfer of the developed methodology through workshops to the fishing community of BraganaPA, as well as a hypothetical economic analysis of leather production. This study aims to develop artisanal tanning techniques of fish skin and transfer the technology through workshops to the members of the fishing community for an alternative income source and to reduce the volume of organic matter discarded into the environment.
Communities making a living from artisanal fishing are in a state of poverty, with other associated problems, including a low level of social organization, competition with industrial embarkations, which reduces the availability of many fish species, fish sold cheaply to intermediaries, who represent the first purchaser and reseller of fish in the delivery system, amongst other obstacles SANTOS, Fish skin is one of the most commonly discarded wastes in the Extractive Reserve RESEX area in the northeast of Par, damaging the environment and the health of the population; it can be transformed into leather through the tanning process, representing an alternative source of income, and may contribute to the local socioeconomic development MARTINS, According to the methodology developed in this study, the hide used for tanning can be preserved by salting or freezing, if salt is used, it must be removed before tanning.
The tanning process is divided into three stages: 1 preparation: the hide is cleaned and the fibers are prepared for the tanning agent, 2 tanning: the tanning agent is Preparation involved soaking, liming, scudding, and deliming. Soaking is the initial cleaning process of the hide, and involved submerging the hide in water for 1 h or until defrosting or removal of salt. Liming was performed using a solution of hydrated lime concentration 20g L For each hide, 1 L of limewater was used and the hides remained in the solution for 4 days.
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Then the hides were washed under running water and the scales and flesh attached to the hides were removed using a dull knife artisanal tool with a wooden base and unsharpened blade. Tanning involved soaking, stretching, and tanning. Soaking aims to remove the lime by adding enough water to immerse the hide and changing the water daily for 4 days. After soaking, the hides are stretched. A solution of mimosa tannin concentration g L-1 was used for tanning, with 1 L of the tannin solution being used per hide.
The hides remained in the tannin solution for 4 days. Conditioning involved soaking, greasing, drying, and softening. The hide was stretched before and after soaking. Water was changed daily for 4 days, greasing was done by directly applying the andiroba oil onto the hide, using approximately 10 mL of oil per hide. After this process, the hides were placed on a clothes line for 2 days under shade to remove moisture.
After drying, they were rubbed on a table corner and stretched to ensure final softness. The liming, soaking, and tanning stages were carried out in 20 L plastic buckets. The scudding, deliming, stretching and greasing stages were carried out on polyethylene boards.
To assess the influence of the liming stage on the quality of the final product, pilot tests that omitted this step were performed, thereby simplifying the. The randomized experimental design included two treatments: tanned hides with and without the liming stage with three replicates. Methodology transfer After developing the artisanal tanning methodology and the resistance test for the obtained hide, the technology was transferred through a workshop to the community of Castelo, municipality of Bragana-Pa S W.
The workshop was conducted for a group of 24 fishermen wives, between 25 and 53 years age, who work in fish scale crafting. First, audio-visual aids were used to emphasize the environmental significance of utilizing fish skin and the financial benefits of fish leather obtained from the tanning process. Then, the tanning procedure developed in the laboratory was demonstrated. Economic analysis The investments and profits of producing hide from the acoupa weakfish were estimated based on prices of products and tools in shops, supermarkets, and on the Internet.
Table 1. Economic analysis calculations. The marketing index includes all sales taxes, the profit margin is the percentage gain above the sale of a product, the tagging rate is used to calculate the sale price, the operating profit is the total sale price after subtracting the fixed and variable costs, net income is income minus product taxes, the contribution margin is considered when calculating the break-even point, which is the minimum revenue required for the company not to experience losses, and the rate of return is the period in which income exceeds the company expenses.
Results and Discussion The hides tanned without the liming stage became stiffer, whereas those tanned with the liming stage incorporated led to soft hide. Soaking helped decrease the pH of the hide. After 3 days, the solution was attenuated, and pH dropped. Equations Fixed value of The pH of the tannin solution was approximately 5. According to Souza , during this stage, the pH values should vary between 4. This may suggest that the soaking stage substitutes the deliming and pickling stages, which are the stages in the traditional tanning process.
Stretching may also have contributed to the efficient diffusion of the tanning agent, since removing flesh remnants reduced the thickness of the hide, with more stretched fibers, as well as removing the most outer interfiber substances, reducing the physical resistance to the penetration of the tanning agent. Further studies are required to prove this hypothesis whether stretching can be an alternative to purging.
The concentration of tannin and tanning time Greasing with andiroba oil contributed to the final softness of the hide. According to Heidemann , a good grease for hide must contain 14 to 18 carbon chain fatty acids, since oils with fewer carbons give rise to rough and less flexible hide. Unlike the methodologies found in the literature, the method developed in this study uses only water, lime, vegetable tannin, and vegetable oil, resulting in effluents containing these substances, flesh remains, hide, and scales, which are less polluting when compared with effluents containing chemical reagents used in traditional tanning.
The total time of the tanning process in this study, 18 days, is longer than that in traditional methods, since additional chemicals such as sulphates, tensoactives, acids, bases, or chromium tanning agent were not used. The longer tanning process is compensated by fewer chemical components in the effluents.
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The tanning technique described by Souza is most similar to that used in this study, as it uses alternative methods to the traditional tanning process. The methods described by SEBRAE and Souza are most similar to the traditional method, with a wider range of chemical agents and more complex tanning processes, which make it more difficult for a workshop community to learn and are more costly in terms of creating an artisanal tannery. With regard to the resistance test, the hides which involved the liming stage Table 2 showed better resistance to traction at The difference between treatments could have occurred due to less amount of tanning agent being absorbed by the hide which did not involve the liming stage, which affected the quantity of the interfiber material and led to smaller aperture of the fibers, making the hide more rigid, a feature also reported by Souza Table 2.
Tension and stretching test of acoupa weakfish Cynoscion acoupa hide using two different tanning processes with and without liming , tanned with mimosa tannin supertan , and greased with andiroba oil Carapa guianensis. Guimares and Barreto performed experiments analyzing the influence of some types of oils in the resistance of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus hide and found that the different oils influenced the resistance of the hide.
Therefore, further studies comparing hides greased with andiroba oil and other types of oils are required to assess whether there is any effect of these oils on. Souza et al. The hide tanned with chromium had a greater resistance to traction at Gomes studied the histological characteristics of hide of the acoupa weakfish C. This arrangement of collagen fibers in the acoupa weakfish is similar to the silver-plated carp mentioned by Souza et al.
The resistance test, however, revealed that the acoupa weakfish hide was more resistant than that of the silver-plated carp tanned with plant tannin or chromium. Vieira et al. This indicates that the concentration of tannin used to tan the hide of the acoupa weakfish was ideal for good resistance and elasticity of the hide. Hide of the acoupa weakfish that did not undergo liming is not suitable for use in garments or footwear since its resistance to traction is The economic analysis was performed using an estimated production of 20 m2 of acoupa weakfish hide, corresponding to pieces of hide weighing 43 Kg Tables 3, 4 and 5.
To tan an acoupa weakfish hide, with an average dimension of 60 cm in length 15cm in width and weight of g, 20 g of lime, g of tannin, 10 mL of andiroba oil, and1 L of water are required. To produce 1 m2 of acoupa weakfish hide, approximately 12 pieces of hide, of the dimensions cited, were required. Table 3. Fixed investment for the production of 20 m2 of acoupa weakfish Cynoscion acoupa hide. Unit Dimensions 1. Prices researched in shops, supermarkets, and on the Internet. May be substituted with a dull knife. Table 4.
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Fixed monthly costs for the production of 20 m2 of acoupa weakfish Cynoscion acoupa hide. Table 5. Variable cost for the production of 20 m2 of acoupa weakfish Cynoscion acoupa hide. The hides may be obtained through donation after fileting. To predict the profit of producing fish hide artefacts Table 6 , an economic analysis was performed on some acoupa weakfish artefacts, based on the initial investment, fixed, and variable costs, and taking into account a monthly production of pieces of acoupa weakfish hide of the specified sizes.
Table 6. Products using acoupa weakfish Cynoscion acoupa hide monthly production of hides. Product Small female purse Female belt Female sandals Male wallet 1. The economic analysis of the tanning process for the production of 20 m2 of hide and handicrafts is shown in Table 7. This process is viable, since. Table 7. Economic analysis of the production of acoupa weakfish Cynoscion acoupa hide per square meter and handicrafts. Calculation for the production of 20 m2 of hide 0.
The price of the product may vary significantly, depending on the location, market, demand, logistics, price of equipment, reagents, tools, and freight, among other factors. The transfer of the artisanal tanning methodology in the community was satisfactory; the simplicity of the tanning method used facilitated its learning and the results obtained for the acoupa weakfish, generated interest in the production of hide to increase family income.
Maluf and Hilbig conducted a similar study and demonstrated an artisanal tanning technique using a vegetable tannin called ecological tannin for the community of Cantuquiriguau in the state of Paran; this community is similar to communities in Bragana-PA in terms of the by-product wastes and environmental impact of these wastes. Calculation for the production of handicrafts hides 0. In another similar study by Cotrim et al. Conclusion The development and transfer of an alternative methodology for the artisanal tanning of the acoupa weakfish hide was successful, since the existing methods in the literature use various chemical reagents and various complex steps that may complicate the understanding of this process in a traditional community.
The resistance test showed that the hide that was treated with limewater, tanned with mimosa vegetable tannin, and greased with andiroba oil showed sufficient resistance to traction and to stretching, and could be used for manufacturing clothing and footwear. The economic analysis showed that the tanning of fish hide using the methodology developed in this study was viable. The artisanal tanning method developed in this study which included the liming stage is a promising method to enhance the quality of acoupa weakfish hide, with less impact on the environment, and represents better involvement of artisanal women in the community, as well as would NBR corte de corposde-prova em couro.
NBR couro - determinao da resistncia trao e alongamento. NBR couro - determinao da espessura. Efeitos de leos alternativos sobre a resistncia do couro da tilpia Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, BASF - Chemical company. Vade-Mcum do curtidor. Industrializao de tilpias. Poltica nacional de resduos slidos. Braslia: Cmara dos Deputados, Edies Cmara, Srie Legislao, n. Agroecologia e pesca artesanal: ampliao da cidadania atravs do artesanato em escama de peixe.
Estatsticas das produes de pescado estuarino e martimo do estado do Par e polticas pesqueiras. Histologia da pele das pescadas: Amarela Cynoscion acoupa e branca Cynoscion leiarchus. Condies ambientais em reas urbanas da bacia hidrogrfica do rio caet - amaznia oriental - Brasil. Revista da Gesto Costeira Integrada, Portugal, v.
Qualidade da gua e abastecimento na Amaznia: o exemplo da bacia hidrogrfica do rio Caet. Mercator, Fortaleza, v.
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