Convert line endings mac os x
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Traditionally, Unix and Mac OS differ in the format in which they store text files. Mac OS places a carriage return character at the end of each line of a text file, but Unix uses a line feed character. Some Unix applications won't recognize the carriage returns added by Mac OS, and will display a file as a single line, interspersed with Ctrl-m characters. Similarly, some Mac OS applications need to see carriage return characters at the ends of lines, and may treat Unix-format files as one long line.
In Mac OS X , the situation is more complicated. For the most part, classic applications still require text files to have carriage returns, while the command-line Unix utilities require line feeds. Mac OS X-native applications are usually capable of interpreting both.
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There are many ways to resolve the differences in format. In this document you will find instructions on how to use the Unix command line utilities tr , awk , and Perl to do the conversion. The Unix program tr is used to tr anslate between two sets of characters.
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Characters specified in one set are converted to the matching character in the second set. Thus, to convert a Unix text file to a Mac OS text file, enter:. Note: The escape sequences must be surrounded by single quotation marks for these commands to work. On some systems, the version of awk may be old and not include the function gsub. To convert all the dos files to unix while not modifying the unix files : [B 1]. To convert all the unix files to dos while not modifying the dos files : [B 1]. If you have opened several files where some are dos and some are unix, you can convert the dos files to unix: [B 1].
If you have opened several files where some are dos and some are unix, you can convert the unix files to dos: [B 1]. When working with "mixed" files where some lines have one kind of terminator, while other lines have a different terminator , reliable conversion requires more effort. Some methods do not work reliably with older Vim 7. The procedures here should work in Vim 7. First ensure you have read the file with the appropriate file format.
After reading with the correct file format, the buffer may still contain unwanted CR characters. Every line in a text file should have a terminator for example, a dos file should end with CRLF. When reading a file, Vim accepts the last line as a normal line, even if it has no terminator. Normally, Vim writes a terminator after every line, including the last.
For rare occasions, it is possible to save a file with no terminator after the last line:. The above only works in Unix, and must be manually triggered. With some scripting, it is possible to automatically preserve a missing end-of-line on any file format. Some obsolete dos files use Ctrl-Z as an end-of-file character.
These steps are required when converting each file:. If all lines in a file end with LF-only, the file can be converted to use CRLF endings by reading as unix and writing as dos. However, if some lines end with CRLF, reading a file as unix will keep each CR in the buffer, and writing the file using any format will write each CR to the file, as if it were a normal character.
When writing, line endings are added, so any CR characters that were in the original file, will be written in addition to line endings. Similarly, if LF is encountered, it is removed, and the preceding text is regarded as a line. Under Unix, you may find that a Vim script does not work because you have downloaded a script that contains CR characters.
If you put, say, script. To fix, you need to convert the file to unix format. The following attempt to convert the file to unix format does not work:. You perform the following to convert it to unix format, then perform further edits:. The first two steps above are correct, and the file will initially be written in unix format. However, the buffer is still marked as dos format, so the :w will overwrite the file using CRLF line endings. However, if you are going to edit the file, you need to use these commands:. This will work if 'fileformats' includes dos and if the files have only CRLF line endings.
If :w is used to write the buffer, nothing useful will be achieved because the CR characters will be written to the file. You may find a discussion of other techniques for handling line endings elsewhere. Some drawbacks of other procedures are mentioned here. You can specify a file format for a particular file by inserting a modeline in that file.
For example, in file my.
In general, using a modeline is useless in this context, although it may help if the file format is correctly detected when the file is read, because the next write will save the file in the preferred format specified in the modeline. However, the modeline does not avoid problems, and may make problems worse.